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Alain Finkielkraut (born 30 June 1949) is a French essayist and public intellectual. He has written books and essays on a wide range of topics, many on the ideas of tradition and identitary violence, including Jewish identity and antisemitism, French colonialism, the mission of the French education system in immigrant assimilation, and the Yugoslav Wars.
He joined the Department of French Literature in the University of California, Berkeley as an assistant professor in 1976 at the age of 27, and from 1989 to 2014, he was professor of History of Ideas in the Ã‰cole Polytechnique department of humanities and social sciences.
He was elected member of the AcadÃ©mie franÃ§aise (Seat 21) on 10 April 2014. He often appears in France on talk shows.
As a thinker, Finkielkraut defines himself as being "at the same time classical and romantic". In a similar vein to some American scholarly views such as the criticism of the School of Resentment by Harold Bloom, and of the The Closing of the American Mind by Allan Bloom, Finkielkraut deplores what he sees as the deterioration of Western tradition through multiculturalism and relativism.
In 2010, he was involved in founding JCall, a left-wing zionist advocacy group based in Europe to lobby the European Parliament on foreign policy issues concerning the Middle East. He is a strong supporter of Israel and the two-state solution.
Finkielkraut is a son of a Polish Jewish manufacturer of fine leather goods who had been deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp and survived.
Finkielkraut studied modern literature at the Ã‰cole normale supÃ©rieure de Lyon. Broadly speaking, his ideas may be described as being in the same vein as those of Emmanuel Levinas and Hannah Arendt, a filiation he has repeatedly pointed out.
Finkielkraut first came to public attention when he and Pascal Bruckner co-authored a number of short but controversial essays intended to question the idea that a new emancipation was underway; these included The New Love Disorder (1977) (Le Nouveau DÃ©sordre amoureux) and At The Corner Of The Street (1978) (Au Coin de la rue), as well as The Adventure (1979) (L'aventure). Finkielkraut then began publishing singly authored works on the public's betrayal of memory and our intransigence in the presence of events which, he argued, should move the public. This reflection led Finkielkraut to address post-Holocaust Jewish identity in Europe (The Imaginary Jew) (1983) (le Juif imaginaire). Seeking to promote what he calls a duty of memory, Finkielkraut also published The Future Of A Negation: Reflexion On The Genocide Issue (1982) (Avenir d'une nÃ©gation : rÃ©flexion sur la question du gÃ©nocide) and later his comments on the Klaus Barbie trial, Remembering in Vain (La MÃ©moire vaine).
Finkielkraut feels particularly indebted to Emmanuel Levinas. In The Wisdom of Love (La Sagesse de l'amour), Finkielkraut discusses this debt in terms of modernity and its mirages. Finkielkraut continues his reflection on the matter in The Defeat of the Mind (1987) (La DÃ©faite de la pensÃ©e), The Ingratitude: Talks about our Times (1999) (Ingratitude : conversation sur notre temps).
At the end of the 1990s, he founded with Benny LÃ©vy and Bernard-Henri LÃ©vy an Institute on Levinassian Studies at Jerusalem.
Essayist on society
In recent years, Alain Finkielkraut has given his opinion on a variety of topics regarding society, for instance the Internet in The Internet, The Troubling Ecstasy (2001) (Internet, l'inquiÃ©tante extase. In the book Present Imperfect (2002) (L'Imparfait du prÃ©sent), akin to a personal diary, he expresses his thoughts about different events in the world (especially the events of 11 September 2001).
During the wars resulting from the Breakup of Yugoslavia, he was one of the first to strongly condemn Serbian ethnic cleansing. However, he has been criticised for his close friendship with Croatian president Franjo TuÄ'man and was accused by David Bruce MacDonald of supporting "a nation whose leader was a Holocaust denier, at the helm of an authoritarian government."
His interview published in the Haaretz magazine in November 2005 in which he gave his opinion about the 2005 French riots stirred up much controversy. Finkielkraut's remarks that the French Soccer Team was "Black, Black, Black" (as opposed to the expression "Black, Blanc, Beur"â"meaning "Black, White, Arab"â"coined after the 1998 World Cup victory to honor the African and Afro Caribbean, European and North African origins of the players) were seen as "racially insensitive".
Israeli filmmaker Eyal Sivan took legal action against Finkielkraut after the Frenchman said Sivan "is, if you will, one of the actors in this particularly painful, particularly alarming reality, the Jewish anti-Semitism that rages today."
60 researchers and professors at the Ã‰cole Polytechnique signed a petition in 2006 to protest his alleged colonial views.
In 2009, he was criticized for his strong defence of Roman Polanski, arrested in Switzerland for illegal sexual relationships with a 13-year-old girl. Finkielkraut claimed that she was a "teenager", "not a child".
The Religion of Humanity and the Sin of the Jews, essay in Azure magazine.
Reflections on the Coming Anti-Semitism, essay in Azure magazine.
Ralentir, mots-valises !, Seuil (1979)
Le nouveau dÃ©sordre amoureux, Seuil (1977)
Au coin de la rue, l'aventure, Seuil (1979)
Petit fictionnaire illustrÃ© : les mots qui manquent au dico, Seuil (1981)
Le Juif imaginaire, Seuil (1981)
L'avenir d'une nÃ©gation, Seuil (1982)
La sagesse de l'amour, Gallimard (1984)
La dÃ©faite de la pensÃ©e, Gallimard (1987)
La mÃ©moire vaine, du Crime contre l'humanitÃ©, Gallimard (1989)
Comment peut-on Ãªtre Croate ?, Gallimard (1992)
L'humanitÃ© perdue, Seuil (1996)
Le mÃ©contemporain. Charles PÃ©guy, lecteur du monde moderne, Gallimard (1992)
L'ingratitude. Conversation sur notre temps avec Antoine Robitaille, Gallimard (1999)
Une voix vient de l'autre rive, Gallimard (2000)
Internet, lâ™inquiÃ©tante extase, Mille et une nuits (2001)
Penser le XXe siÃ¨cle, Ã‰cole Polytechnique (2000)
Des hommes et des bÃªtes, Tricorne (2000)
L'imparfait du prÃ©sent. PiÃ¨ces brÃ¨ves, Gallimard (2002)
Enseigner les lettres aujourd'hui, Tricorne (2003)
Les battements du monde, Pauvert (2003)
Au nom de l'Autre. RÃ©flexions sur l'antisÃ©mitisme qui vient, Gallimard (2003)
Nous autres, modernes : quatre leÃ§ons, Ellipses (2005)
Ce que peut la littÃ©rature Stock (2006)
Entretiens sur la laÃ¯citÃ©, Verdier (2006)
Qu'est-ce que la France Stock (2007)
La querelle de l'Ã©cole, Stock (2007)
Philosophie et modernitÃ©, Ã‰cole Polytechnique (2008)
Un cÅ"ur intelligent, Stock/Flammarion (2009)
Â« Pour une dÃ©cence commune Â» in Regards sur la crise. RÃ©flexions pour comprendre la criseâ¦ et en sortir, essay contributed to a collective work edited by Antoine Mercier, Paris, Ã‰ditions Hermann, 2010.
Lâ™explication, conversation avec Aude Lancelin, with Alain Badiou, Nouvelles Ã‰ditions Lignes, 2010.
L'interminable Ã©criture de l'Extermination, with Finkielkraut's direction, transcriptions of TV appearances on RÃ©pliques de France Culture, Stock, 2010.
Et si l'amour durait, Stock, 2011
L'identitÃ© malheureuse, Stock, 2014
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